The First Modern War And the Last Ancient War
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The First Modern War And the Last Ancient War
http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/westtech/x1stmodw.htm

The First Modern War - The U.S. Civil War (1861-1865)

In reading the history of warfare, we typically read that General X met General Y on the battlefield, X won, Y retreated, then they met again on another battlefield, and so on. Then we come to a war where the balance of power is described in terms of who has the most miles of telegraph line and railroad, and who has the most steel foundries and rolling mills. That war is the U.S. Civil War. In many ways it was the first truly modern war that depended on heavy industry, rapid transportation, and telecommunications for its conduct. Among the technological innovations and new weapons introduced (more accurately in some cases, used to their full capacity for the first time) were:

Telecommunications

This was the first war where transcontinental telecommunications played a significant role. The telegraph line to California was pivotal in helping to keep California in the Union. Telegraphy permitted generals to communicate rapidly with far-flung forces and journalists to file stories with their newspapers, in turn keeping public support for and interest in the war high by providing a sense of direct participation. (It all depends on the war - media coverage had exactly the opposite effect in Vietnam.)

Photojournalism

Although photographs were taken in a few earlier conflicts, this was the first war massively documented. Over a million photographs were taken during the Civil War. The clumsy glass plates were so numerous that in some cases they were recycled as window panes for greenhouses.

Aerial observation

Balloons had been used in a few earlier conflicts, and they were widely used by both sides in the Civil War, often with a telegraph line so the observer could communicate directly with the ground.

Submarines

A one-man mini-sub was unsuccessfully used during the American Revolution, and Civil War submarines were only marginally more successful. The most successful (if it can be called that) was the C.S.S. Hunley. About 12 meters long with a crew of two officers and six sailors, it was powered by steam. It was armed with a torpedo, which in those days was an explosive charge attached to a long pole. Torpedoes were also attached to surface ships and were detonated by ramming them into an enemy vessel. The Hunley was sent out three times, sinking each time. On one trial, two crewmen escaped. The fourth time it was sent out to attack the U.S.S. Housatonic. It detonated its torpedo, sinking the Housatonic and thereby becoming the first submarine ever to sink an enemy vessel. But the Hunley was also sunk by the blast, becoming the only ship in naval history to go down with 375 per cent of its crew. The Hunley has recently been discovered and raised and is now undergoing preservation.

Steam and Iron-Clad Ships

If submarines failed to get beyond the prototype stage, steam vessels came into their own in the Civil War. The first duel between iron-clad warships was the celebrated duel between the Monitor and Merrimac, both prototypes, in 1862. By war's end, steam and iron-clad vessels were the norm.

Railroads

This was the first war in which railroads were crucial in moving large numbers of soldiers and large amounts of supplies quickly over long distances.

Rapid-Fire Weapons

True machine guns were not invented for another twenty years, but the Gatling gun, a rotating bundle of gun barrels each firing in turn, was in use. The speed of a Gatling gun is limited only by how fast the barrels can spin, and they are still in use on helicopter gunships.

A Mythic Struggle

The Civil War continues to attract attention because it was a struggle of mythic proportions. The ferocity of combat in the Civil War defies belief. At Spotsylvania Court House in Virginia in 1864, the rifle fire was so intense it cut down a tree two feet thick. After the battle men were found on the battlefield unharmed but sound asleep; they simply collapsed on their feet from exhaustion. By modern standards, 30 per cent casualties are considered all but suicidal; when Napoleon took 25 per cent casualties at Waterloo his army collapsed. In several battles in the Civil War both sides took 30 per cent casualties, departed the battlefield in good order, regrouped, and were ready to fight again in a few days. Some of the incidents in the Civil War would be dismissed as the wildest fiction if they were not thoroughly documented. Here are three Civil War vignettes.

Chickamauga and its Aftermath

After capturing the city of Chattanooga, Tennessee in the summer of 1864, the Union Army of the Cumberland prepared to invade Georgia. Not far into Georgia, they ran into a large Confederate force and a major battle developed. Because of a mixup in communications, a Union brigade pulled out of position and relocated, leaving a gap in the Union lines at the worst possible place and at the worst possible time. The Confederates, purely by chance, chose that time to counterattack and the full force of the counterattack came down on - nothing at all. The Confederates punched completely through the Union lines and only some brilliant work by the Union General John Thomas, widely regarded as the greatest defensive general in American history, saved the Union forces from utter annihilation. The battle came to be named after a small creek, a name that meant nothing a day earlier but would forever be associated with slaughter afterwards - Chickamauga.

The Union army retired to Chattanooga to lick its wounds. They were safe behind a river bend and could not be driven out. The Confederates dug in on the ridges south of the city and could also not be driven out. General Grant moved in troops from the Army of the West along the Mississippi, and also moved in troops from the Army of the Potomac (an indication of how railroads were changing the face of war.)

The Union attack came in November. The first objective was to drive the Confederates off the ridges around Chattanooga. After driving the Confederates off Lookout Mountain overlooking Chattanooga, the next objective was to drive them off Missionary Ridge east of town. The Army of the West and the Army of the Potomac would carry out the main attack, assaulting the ridge at either end. the Army of the Cumberland, reduced to a supporting role in their own theater of operations, was assigned to attack the Confederate positions at the base of the ridge in the center. They were only supposed to keep the Confederates busy, since nobody dreamed they would be able to overwhelm dug-in Confederate positions, climb a steep bluff, and drive the defenders off the top.

But that's exactly what they did. Infuriated at their loss of face, and being reduced to minor players in their own battle, the Army of the Cumberland overran the Confederate positions, then, completely without orders, began climbing the ridge. The generals in Chattanooga, watching through field glasses, stared in open-mouthed incredulity at what was going on. How demoralizing the assault was for the Confederates is shown by one incident. A Union soldier reaching the top was faced by a Confederate officer with a sword. The Union soldier dropped his weapon, went after the officer barehanded, and the officer ran away.

Some of the troops from the Army of the West ended up having the widest travels of any soldiers in the war. From the Mississippi, they reinforced Chattanooga, then marched with Sherman through Georgia to the sea. After that, Sherman turned north into the Carolinas. When they finally entered Richmond, they came up from the south.

The War at Sea

At sea, the Civil War was a global, if low-level war. Confederate raiders attacked Union shipping all over the globe. Under the rules of naval warfare, a captured merchant vessel could be sold to finance the war effort, converted to a fighting ship, or sunk if no other alternative were available. The crew would be taken prisoner and put ashore at the next port. Generally speaking, the rules were scrupulously followed. The most famous Confederate raider was the C.S.S. Alabama, built in England and finally sunk off Cherbourg, France. The Alabama is commemorated by a monument in about the least maritime setting imaginable. At the base of the Sierra Nevada just below Mount Whitney are the Alabama Hills. The few settlers in the area in the 1860's were pro-Confederacy but unable to join the war effort, so they named the hills to show their sympathies.

But the most interesting Confederate raider was the C.S.S. Shenandoah. She sailed across the Indian and Pacific Oceans, and by early 1865 she was raiding Union whaling vessels in the Gulf of Alaska. (In this remote area, the Confederates would put crews from several captured vessels on one and allow them to sail to safety, then sink the others.) On one of the captured ships, the Confederates found a newspaper from which they learned that San Francisco was completely undefended (who expected a Confederate naval assault on San Francisco?) So they conceived the plan of holding San Francisco for ransom; they would threaten to bombard the city unless a ransom was paid, to go into the Confederate war chest.

What saved San Francisco was an encounter with a British vessel, where the Confederates learned that the war was over. Fearing reprisal if they surrendered, the Confederates decided to sail to England. They sailed south around Cape Horn, up the far side of the Atlantic to avoid Union warships, and finally docked in England in November, 1865, where the last official Confederate flag was pulled down. The C.S.S. Shenandoah was the only Confederate raider to sail around the world.

The Most Remote Land Battles of the Civil War

Mormons have such an All-American and patriotic image today, it is hard to imagine there was once a time when they were viewed as dangerous radicals. In the 1850's, however, there was serious concern (not wholly unfounded) that they might attempt to carve out an independent nation in Utah, and fully a third of the then-tiny U.S. Army was in Utah keeping an eye on the Mormons.

When the Civil War broke out, volunteers in California formed a brigade and began marching eastward. When they got to Salt Lake City, however, the professional soldiers said in effect, "We'll go fight the war - you stay here and watch the Mormons. So, much to their disgust, the California Brigade never got further east than Utah and spent the war on garrison duty.

The Shoshone in Idaho, however, decided that with the regular soldiers gone, the time was ripe to recoup some of their losses, so they began raiding settlements. The Californians marched north and defeated the Shoshone in a couple of battles, and thereby got to see at least some action during the war.

Why did the South Lose?

At first glance the South had many advantages. It had the best generals (one can hardly ask for better than Lee). It had a long coastline, impossible to blockade completely (Rhett Butler in Gone With The Wind was a blockade-runner who spent much of the war in London and Paris). The Union capital was vulnerable to attack (Lincoln resorted essentially to brute force to keep Maryland from joining the Confederacy and surrounding Washington).

The Union had a far larger population and industrial base, but all the miles of telegraph and railroad line in the world do little good if they are in your own territory, and the Union problem was to invade the Confederacy. The Confederacy enjoyed the advantage of defense, and they had a fairly compact region to defend. The Appalachians prevented attack from the west into Virginia. Florida was an exposed peninsula, but in those days it was largely uninhabited and played little role in the war. The Union could land anywhere it liked in Florida, but the region simply lacked the transportation to make it useful as a staging area. The same was true of the far West; neither side had the logistical capability to outflank the other by campaigning beyond the Mississippi. When the Confederacy surrendered, it still had an intact army in Texas, but in Bruce Catton's words "it might as well have been in Siberia."

One important factor may have been that the North realized just a bit sooner than the South what sort of war it was fighting. In Attack and Die: Civil War Military Tactics and the Southern Heritage, G. McWhitney and P.D. Jamieson argued that the South held on to the medieval concept of chivalry and individual valor on the battlefield more than the North. Despite the fact that the South's main objective was to defend, in almost every early battle of the war the South attacked. By the time the South adopted more conservative tactics, it had been bled white. This mentality is echoed in Gone With the Wind; when Rhett Butler cautions about the Union's greater industrial capacity, he is challenged to a duel by a young romantic hothead, but simply walks away.

One southerner did see exactly what the war would be like. In May, 1861 he told a fellow officer:

I fear our people do not yet realize the magnitude of the struggle they have entered upon, nor its probable duration, and the sacrifices it will impose upon them... Their [the Union's] resources are almost without limit...They have also a navy that in a little while will blockade our ports and cut us off from the rest of the world. They have nearly all the workshops and skilled artisans of the country....We have no ships, few arms, and few manufacturers. We will not succeed until the financial power of the North is completely broken, and this can occur only at the end of a long and bloody war. The conflict will be mainly in Virginia. She will become the Flanders of America before this war is over...I wish I could talk to every man, woman and child in the State now, and impress them with these views.

The speaker was Robert E. Lee.

Historian Bruce Catton, as well as many others, believes the numerical and technical superiority of the North was simply too great to resist indefinitely; that eventually the Southern defenses had to fail somewhere, and when they did, it would be all over.

When Grant's attempt to advance on Richmond in the summer of 1864 stalled, unlike all previous commanders, he simply moved and tried again. For the next nine months, Union forces sidestepped to their left trying to outflank the Confederates. Eventually the trenches formed a complete semicircle extending well south of Richmond. Both sides suddenly saw that the city of Petersburg, about 50 miles south of Richmond, was the key to continuing or ending the war, because it was the only rail junction connecting Richmond to the rest of the Confederacy. Faced with the need to defend a line running continuously from north of Richmond to Petersburg, the Confederates were stretched thinner and thinner. Eventually their line snapped. Within a little over a week it was over. The final year of the Civil War, chronicled in Bruce Catton's A Stillness at Appomattox, was actually something new in the history of warfare - never before had two large armies remained locked in continuous combat for so long.

The Last Ancient War - World War I (1914-1918)

The Civil War telescoped 19th century warfare into four years; it started with pitched battles that would have been familiar to Napoleon (civilian observers carried picnic baskets out to observe the first Battle of Bull Run), and ended with World War I-style trench warfare. At the Battle of Cold Harbor in early 1865, the Union assaulted well dug-in Confederate positions and lost 6,000 men in 20 minutes. Confederate losses are unknown but it is entirely possible they were zero.

Full-Dress Rehearsal: The Boer War (1898-1902)

The U.S. Civil War had shown, quite conclusively, that attacks on entrenched positions were suicidal, that railroads and telegraph lines were weapons of war, and that soldiers armed with repeating rifles and making effective use of terrain could have devastating impact.

Making the carnage of World War I still more inexcusable was the fact that the British had a full-scale dress rehearsal 15 years earlier. When diamonds were discovered in the then-independent Dutch-speaking Transvaal, South Africa, the British simply moved in to occupy the region. They expected no problems; they were not facing professional soldiers, but farmers. But they overlooked a few small details. These farmers were used to fighting, having fought several wars with local Africans. They knew the terrain intimately (like American frontiersmen, they faced adversaries who used terrain instinctively). And they were armed with the most modern repeating rifles. The British suffered a series of humiliating defeats resulting from incompetence (like failing to secure a key railroad) and arrogance (failing to post guards). They finally won the war, but it took four years and 22,000 casualties to do it. The Boer War was the first battle experience as a journalist for young Winston Churchill. (He previously served in the Sudan, where he observed "Nothing in life is so exhilarating as to be shot at without result.")

To cut the Boer fighters off from their base of supply, the British resorted to rounding up civilians and relocating them in concentration camps. (Before the Holocaust, the term "concentration camp" had no sinister connotations - it was simply a camp where people were concentrated for easier control.) More South Africans died in these camps from disease than died in battle. One reason the struggle to end apartheid was so bitter was that Dutch-speaking South Africans still held bitter memories of the camps and regarded their critics as completely lacking in moral credibility.

The Technology of World War I

The technology of World War I was far advanced over that of the Civil War. Submarines by now were essentially modern in design, and torpedoes had taken on their modern features. Tanks made their appearance on the battlefield. Chemical weapons also appeared. Chemical warfare began as an individual venture; policemen turned soldiers used civilian tear gas to clear trenches, but soon large industrial-scale manufacture of gases, notably chlorine and phosgene, was under way. Radio had made battlefield telecommunications even more efficient. Finally, fully modern machine guns were in use and accounted for much of the slaughter in the war.

Airplanes, though primitive, were used widely. At first, they were used for observation, but before long, opposing fliers were shooting at each other. Aerial combat, like chemical warfare, began as an individual venture, when fliers took up weapons on their own initiative, but soon machine guns were mounted routinely on aircraft. The breakthrough in aerial combat was the invention of a way to synchronize the firing of the machine guns with the propeller so that bullets flew between the blades. Bombing was comparatively little used, since aircraft lacked the range or lifting capacity to make strategic bombing feasible.

Ancient Tactics

Although World War I had technology far more advanced than the Civil War, it was ancient in its mentality; it was widely described in ancient terms as a glorious struggle, and many people still thought in terms of ancient concepts of individual honor on the battlefield. In one tactical respect it was ancient as well: although motor vehicles were in widespread use, so were horse cavalry and swords.

Typical of the glorious war mentality was poet Rupert Brooke, who penned the famous lines "If I should die/ think only this of me/ that there's a corner of some foreign field/that is forever England." In another poem, he wrote "blow out you bugles, over the rich dead." With a mentality like that, it would seem a positive tragedy if Brooke were to survive the war, and he didn't. But he didn't die gloriously in combat. During the Gallipoli campaign he got sunstroke, developed blood poisoning (probably what we would now call toxic shock syndrome), and died.

The total failure by generals to revise their tactics to meet new technology led to perhaps the most senseless carnage in the history of warfare. The Germans had hoped to repeat their success of 1871, when they swept around Paris in a wide arc to attack it from the north. They failed to realize that improved railroads and motor vehicles made it much easier to move troops to meet unexpected threats. Once the initial German push into France stalled, both sides settled into static trench warfare that eventually saw a continuous line of trenches from the Alps to the English Channel. For the first couple of years of the war, thanks to machine guns, the defense enjoyed an advantage not seen perhaps since before the advent of gunpowder. Seeking to break the stalemate and create a war of movement of a more "classical" sort, opposing generals sent mass charges against machine gun fire, in the expectation that one more push or a bit more more willpower would earn victory. In 1916, at the Battle of the Somme, the Allies lost about as many men in one day as the U.S. lost in Korea. Letters and journals of soldiers in the field reveal desperate attempts to redefine old concepts of courage and valor to fit the radically changed conditions of warfare. Aerial combat was (and is today) probably the only aspect of modern combat where ancient ideas of individual combat are at all valid.

The one "modern" battle of World War I

Turkey made the mistake of siding with the Germans in World War I, and lost its empire and almost its nationhood as a result. The strategic importance of Turkey was that it controlled Russia's only access to the Mediterranean. Closing this access was vital to the Germans because it cut Russia off from easy supply and reinforcement.

In February, 1915, the British fleet attempted to force its way through the Dardanelles, but was turned back by artillery fire from Turkish forts. In those days nobody defeated the British fleet, especially not a backward, poorly equipped country like Turkey. The defeat was a tremendous lift to Turkish morale. Next, the Allies tried to seize the narrow Gallipoli Peninsula on the north side of the Dardanelles to capture the forts and gain control of the Dardanelles. The campaign was a costly failure. The one bright spot was the final retreat. Under cover of darkness, using carefully staged deceptions, the Allies pulled every single soldier off the beach without a single casualty. The debacle nearly destroyed the political career of Winston Churchill, who had strongly backed the campaign. Churchill spent the next 15 years in obscurity before returning to power and historical immortality in World War II.

As botched as the Gallipoli campaign was in practice, it employed a number of highly experimental or novel technologies: submarines, amphibious operations, and aircraft. Allied planners in World War II found little to learn from the trench warfare of World War I but Gallipoli was a storehouse of information on amphibious warfare. The lessons of Gallipoli played a major role in planning for Dunkirk and Normandy.

One of the great what-ifs of history happened when the Turks turned back the British fleet. After the war, German advisors who had been in the Turkish forts wrote their memoirs. When the British gave up and turned back, the Turks were within five minutes of running out of ammunition. Five more minutes and the straits would have been in Allied control. Maybe with proper supply, Russia might have stayed in the war. Maybe the Russian Revolution would never have happened, Communism would never have taken over, and the Cold War might not have taken place.

You goddamn communist heathen, you had best sound off that you love the Virgin Mary... or I'm gonna stomp your guts out!
2013 Aug 27 01:28
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Artturi (29-05-2016)
Blackthorne
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RE: The First Modern War And the Last Ancient War
Of particular interest to my European friends is that a significant portion of the soldiery in the federal forces were Europeans rather than indigenous citizens of the American commonwealth.

There were also military observers from countries like Britain and Prussia who came here. Prussia, in particular, used what it learned from the ACW in its war with France in 1870.

I wouldn't pay too much attention to the fluffy stuff in the article below that glorifies the diverse cosmopolitanism of the Union as the reason the ACW was won by the Northern States- it was superior industry and superior manpower that overwhelmed the Confederates.

Foreign Soldiers in the American Civil War

http://wesclark.com/jw/foreign_soldiers.html

The decades preceding the outbreak of the American Civil War witnessed an unprecedented influx of immigrants who sought security and opportunity in America. The overwhelming majority of these foreign born settled in the North and were especially attracted to urban areas or communities where their compatriots were already established. From 1820 to 1860 approximately four million people immigrated to the fledgling United States. The majority of these came from:
The German States (c. 500,000) particularly after the social and political upheaval of the 1848 revolution;

Ireland (c. 1,000,000) most as a result of economic hardships brought on by the infamous "Potato Famine";

England (c. 300,000) many of whom came from the depressed areas of Scotland and Wales.

Although newly arrived, these hearty souls adapted quickly. Most took out American citizenship, sent their children to school and in the case of the Germans, made attempts to learn English. Politically, most were loyal to the Union, with many supporting the Republican party. The Irish were an exception to this, however, as they became ardent Democrats, forming the backbone of the machine politics of the great cities of the East. Upon the outbreak of hostilities of 1861, these ethnic groups responded to Lincoln's call for troops in stirring fashion. Often, men from the same background and origin banded together to form regiments from the states where they had settled. Others joined local units and served with their native born neighbors. The overwhelming majority of these foreign born immigrants served loyally and well in the Union armies. It was an absolute falsehood, however, that the majority of all Federal troops were foreign born, as was an oft repeated assertion of the Southern and British press of the time. Based on enlistment rolls and other official reports and stated in round figures, out of approximately 2,000,000 Union soldiers enlisted during the war over two-thirds (2/3) were native born Americans. Thus, only under one-third (1/3) of all troops were non-natives distributed approximately as follows:

German c. 200,000

Irish c. 150,000

British c. 150,000

Canadians c. 50,000

others c. 75,000 (mostly European)

Comparing the percentage of native and immigrant troops to the total population of the North (c. 21,000,000) reveals that the per capita percentage total enlistments from both groups is approximately equal. Thus, we can assert that the foreign troops did their fair share of service in their adopted land for the cause of Union. Overall comparison of the ethnic makeup of the regiments in Federal service shows that:

- in 75% of these units the majority was of native American birth;

- in 7% the majority were German;

- in 6% the majority were Irish;

- in a further 6% the proportion of native to non-native born was equal

- in the the remaining 6% we find a mixture of troops of diverse origin, including Colored troops.

The contribution of the foreign born immigrant troops to the cause of the Union was decisive in securing victory over the Confederacy. The loyalty and patriotism of these new Americans, with a few exceptions, never flagged. Their efforts helped insure a united country and a secure future for the nation.

Since most foreign born troops were scattered throughout the volunteer state regiments, it is difficult to single out any "American" regiments for the outstanding individual contributions of its foreign born elements. One need only scan the muster rolls of the average Union regiment to recognize the significant roll of the foreign born whose names appear there.

As a typical case of an immigrant who served most admirably in a non ethnic regiment, I can state the record of Michael Dougherty, buried in St. Mark's Cemetery in Bristol, Pennsylvania who enlisted in a company of cavalry composed of mostly Irish immigrants from the Northern Liberties section of Philadelphia, which was mustered into the 13th Pennsylvania cavalry regiment. The majority of this regiment were native born. For valor in action in Virginia in 1864, Dougherty received the Medal of Honor.

It is easier, however, to chronicle the service and record of regiments wholly or mostly composed of a particular foreign origin, in order to illustrate the role of these troops in the Civil War. The listing which follows attempts to name some of the more famous of the foreign units.

German speaking elements

Immigration from the German speaking areas of Europe, including the as yet un-united German states, Austria, Switzerland, Alsace-Lorraine, etc. was particularly heavy prior to the Civil War, mainly because of economic and political troubles which culminated in the revolution of 1848. These new settlers had not had enough opportunity to become assimilated and retained their language and customs despite their intense loyalty and feelings for their new homeland.

The Germans, or "Dutch" as they were derisively called (Deutsche is the German word for "German," hence the confusion with the name for Hollanders) were resented by their native born neighbors, as are all new immigrant at the 1st Battle of Bull Run.

McClellan granted Blenker permission to form a division of German regiments from the Army of the Potomac.

Blenker's German Division

1st Brigade: (Stahel) 8th, 39th, 45th N.Y., 27th Penn. 2nd Brigade: (Steinwehr) 29th, 54th, 68th N.Y., 73rd Penn. 3rd Brigade: (Bohlen) 41st, 58th N.Y., 74th, 75th Penn., 4th N.Y. Cavalry with Schirmer's, Wiedrich's, Sturmfels' Artillery batteries.

The division was assigned to Fremont's corps in the Mountain department and the Shenandoah Valley. Command passed to Carl Schurtz. The division under Schurz was incorporated into Franz Sigel's corps of Pope's Army of Virginia. In September of 1862, shortly before Antietam, the army corps was reorganized and the German division now mixed with American regiments became the IX Corps of the Army of the Potomac, initially under Sigel, then entrusted to Oliver O. Howard just before the battle of Chancellorsville. Transferred to the Western army, the corps merged with the XII Corps to form the XX Corps in April 1864. The XX Corps served under Sherman in the West until the end of the war. By the time of the consolidation the German character of any unit larger than a regiment had been lost through field losses, muster out, conscripts and an admixture of Americans.

One unique regiment forming an original part of the Blenker division is noteworthy. The "Garibaldi Guards" (the 39th New York Volunteer Infantry) was composed mainly of Italians and Germans, but with a unique admixture of men included real Zouaves from Algiers, foreign legionnaires, Cossacks, Indian Sepoys, Turks, Slavs, Swiss, Spaniards and Austrians. Its commander, Colonel D'Utassy, was a Hungarian who had been a circus trick rider. He proved to be a rogue, however, later spending time in prison. The unit was uniformed in the distinctive green and plumes of the Italian Bersaglieri -- light Infantry.

The Irish

Arriving in America mainly to escape social and economic deprivations in their homeland, the Irish flocked to our shores in the two decades preceding the Civil War. Settling for the most part in the urban centers of the North, they formed a most powerful minority. The Irish were to be found mostly in Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania and the urban areas of other Northern states. Although they spoke English, they were often the object of scorn and hatred from the native born population due to religious, cultural and class differences. In addition, the native born Americans feared they would form a cheap labor source and take away jobs.

The Irish were mostly loyal to the Democratic party, but many enthusiastically answered Lincoln's call for troops to defend the Union only, since abolitionist sentiment was low among them. Mention of the Irish in the Civil War brings immediate thought to the most celebrated Irish organization in the Union army, the Irish Brigade. Organized by Thomas Francis Meagher of New York, it was composed of the "Fighting 69th" New York Infantry Regiment (originally a militia unit), the 63rd, and 88th New York, the 28th Massachusetts and later the 116th Pennsylvania. The Irish Brigade distinguished itself through all the great battles in the East, priding itself on the fact that it never lost a flag or a gun to the enemy. Later in the war as the ranks filled with conscripts, however, the Brigade did suffer some humiliation.

There were several other wholly or mainly Irish regiments which served in the Union armies from New England (the 9th Massachusetts, for example) to Wisconsin (the 11th Wisconsin), but most Irish were dispersed throughout the units of the American born. They were also well represented in the small Regular Army.

Other nationalities

Other groups which made significant communal efforts within the Federal armies also deserve to be mentioned. Though their numbers are small in relation to the Germans and Irish, they loyally answered the call to defend their adopted land.

French



The 55th New York Volunteer Infantry (the Lafayette Guard) organized by Count Philippe R‚gis de Trobriand and composed of many French residents of New York, distinguished itself on the field of battle early in the war. Later it was consolidated with the 46th New York.

Italians

The 39th New York (the Garibaldi Guard) contained many Italians, but this unit was mostly German speaking and boasted a large and diverse contigent of ex-patriots from around the world.

Poles

The 58th New York (Pulaski Guard) contained many German speaking Poles from the Prussian and Austrian ruled sections of partioned Poland. Its commander, Colonel Krzyzanowski, was a brigade commander of the XI Corps at Gettysburg.

Scandinavians

Large numbers of hearty Norwegians and Swedes had recently settled in the mid-West, particularly Wisconsin and Minnesota, prior to the Civil War. These Scandinavians answered the call to service and formed some ethnic units which served in the Western campaigns. Perhaps the most famous of these was the 15th Wisconsin, whose commander, Colonel Heg, died at Chickamauga.

Scottish

The famous 79th New York "Highlanders" was composed principally of men of Scottish birth. They sported kilts, bonnets, and were accompanied by the bagpipes, but at the battle of 1st Bull Run wore tartan "trews" (trousers) of the Cameron clan, to honor its Colonel. Though they did once mutiny, they later gave good service in action.

The number of ethnic regiments in the Union army is small compared to the vast number of units raised. But most immigrants scattered throughout the Northern states ended up joining their neighbors in local organizations, thus effectively bringing their contribution to an individual level indistinguishable from the American born majority.

Also lost from view are the contributions of the English and Canadian immigrants who served nobly and for the most part anonymously alongside their American born brothers-in-arms. Many varied peoples from all areas of the earth seemed to have participated in the cause of Union. There were even American Indian regiments raised in the West. Attempts were made to attract Mexicans to the ranks, and several thousand immigrant Jews served with distinction, one being awarded with the Medal of Honor for valor. There were also reports that Orientals saw some limited action.

America is a land of great diversity, and nothing is more diverse than the myriad of origins of its people. We are an immigrant nation whose ancestors sought opportunity in a new homeland. As if to demonstrate their belief in an eventual united people and hope for the future, they wholeheartedly supported the Union cause in the Civil War. This support was paid in both blood and sweat, for these recent arrivals fought and died in every battle and engagement of the war, and they who stayed at home provided the labor to clothe, feed and supply the armies. By their deeds did these newly arrived prove their devotion to the cause of Union. Without their considerable contributions, it is very doubtful whether the Union could have been preserved.

You goddamn communist heathen, you had best sound off that you love the Virgin Mary... or I'm gonna stomp your guts out!
2013 Aug 27 02:02
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