Andean Art in the Spanish Empire
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Aemma
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Andean Art in the Spanish Empire
Hey Gam (and Ossi possibly) you might be interested in this....

Just a couple of weeks ago now I had the great fortune to accompany my hubby on a business trip to Chicago. While there I went to the Art Institute of Chicago, a spectacular art gallery. Anyway, while I was there, there was an exhibit called A Voyage to South America: Andean Art in the Spanish Empire. I thought, well I can't bypass this so I went and saw what they had. It was a smallish exhibit but a rich one. When I finally download my pics from my phone (although their quality leaves something to be desired by times), I'll post them here. But in the meantime, I'll extract bits from the leaflet I picked up and post some of the paintings that I saw there. It was truly nice to see. Who knows you might have seen these pieces already, Gam!

Anyway, from the leaflet:

Quote:In May 1735, after a forty-four-day-long crossing of the Atlantic, a trying overland transfer across the Isthmus of Panama, and what he called a "martyrdom" by mosquitoes off the coast of Ecuador, the nineteen-year-old Spanish naval officer Antonio de Ulloa finally reached his destination of Quito, a city in the viceroyalty of Peru, a Spanish colonial district encompassing much of present-day South America. There he and his entourage were greeted by the local population with elaborate festivities. The purpose of the trip was a scientific mission led by French nationals Charles Marie de la Condamine, Louis Godin, and Pierre Bouguer to measure one degree of latitude at the earth's equator. Ulloa and his compatriot Jorge Juan were sent by the Spanish king Philip V to observe the methods of the French scientists and ensure that they did not abuse the courtesy that had been extended to them by the Spanish crown.

By virtue of this enterprising mission, Ulloa added his name to the centuries-old list of European explorers, missionaries, and others who had come to the New World since the early 16th century. The portrait he commissioned upon his retirement in Spain, after a long career in colonial administration and the Spanish navy, signals his self-identification as a cartographer and humanist. Unlike the explorers before him--Christopher Columbus, Hernan Cortes, Francisco Pizarro--who had come to discover and claim lands that they hardly knew to exist, Ulloa and his fellow travelers did not seek to expand Spanish territories; rather, they wanted to understand better the lands already under Spanish control. They documented their experiences and later published on subjects as varied as the topography of South America, the unjust treatment of indigenous labourers, and the fruit of the famous cinchona tree. The people Ulloa and his contemporaries encountered in South America composed a multiethnic and multilingual society, bound together by the introduction of the Spanish language and the promotion of the Roman Catholic Church.

In Quinto, Ulloa found a city dense with churches and convents. Already known by 1700 as the "cloister of the Andes," the city was host to ambitious building campaigns carried out by European descendants together with Andean masters of construction, resulting in a cathedral, seven parish churches, and nearly a dozen monasteries and convents as well as independent chapels and hermitages. These buildings and their decorations created sites for the promotion of Roman Catholicism in the New World, considered by many Spaniards to be the sole justification for territorial expansion beyond the Iberian Peninsula.

...


Here is the portrait of Antonio de Ulloa y de la Torre-Guiral:

[Image: 1z1foyc.jpg]


{More to come}

~Be the Virtuous Man or Woman you are meant to be.~
2015 Feb 19 19:36
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Gamera
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RE: Andean Art in the Spanish Empire
Indeed, an interesting topic Aemma. I did not know about Ulloa, so it is good you brought it up. Smile

I especially enjoy the Cuzco School art; and have personally seen many of the original ones in Cuzco:

[Image: cuscog_08.jpg]

[Image: 6200714_1_l.jpg]

[Image: 2vnhy0k.jpg]

Notice the mountain-shaped virgin which, unlike representations elsewhere, were very common in Andean religious art of the Spanish Empire. This is because mountains were sacred to the quechua and other people from the Andes (they were considered to be gods, apus), and thus an effective mechanism to evangelize the local population.

“I'm an economist. I've even got a PhD in Economics. Yet, I'm a good person, I swear!” - Rafael Correa, president of Ecuador
2015 Feb 19 23:09
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Osweo
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RE: Andean Art in the Spanish Empire
About the mountain shape, I don´t know if this should be over-emphasised, as the Virgen in my own church down the street here looks pretty identical. She´s a smallish statue of normal human shape, but they pile immense gowns onto her until she´s just a cone with a head and hands!

"And now if a whole nation fell into that? In such a case, I answer, infallibly they will return out of it. For life is no cunningly-devised deception or self deception, it is a great truth that thou art alive, that thou hast desires, necessities: neither can these subsist and satisfy themselves on delusions, but on fact. To fact, depend on it, we shall come back: to such fact, blessed or cursed, as we have wisdom for."
Thomas Carlyle
2015 Feb 20 17:33
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Aemma
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RE: Andean Art in the Spanish Empire
A cone with a head and hands. LOL

Anyway, here's my next installment (A second try at it since my stupid internet cut out and I lost it all. sad ):

Quote:Like Quito, the urban centre of Lima was conceived at its founding, in 1535, with a cathedral at its physical and political centre. Known as the City of Kings, Lima served as the capital of Spanish territories in South America, which encompassed present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia, among other countries. Ulloa and Juan visited Lima to consult with the new viceroy, with whom Ulloa had the fortune of traveling across the Atlantic. Starting in 1570, Lima also served as the first site for the Holy Office of the Inquisition in South America. Priests were aided in their service to the Holy Office by lay officials, or familiares, who conducted inspections and, in some cases, supervised testimonies concerning suspicions of idolatry. Like other Spaniards in the New World--and indeed like most Spanish descendants and indigenous Americans of means, familiares commissioned works of art to decorate their homes and project their allegiances. One example, created in 1626, features an allegorical representation of Faith flanked by Saints Dominic and Peter of Verona, with the painting's donor, the familiar Baltasar Ramos, and his wife kneeling below and supporting the escutcheon of the Inquisition. They hold further demonstrations of their piety in the form of rosaries, a devotional aid first conceived by the Dominicans.

Oddly enough I cannot find a picture of the portrait in question on the internet so I am posting a picture of it from the leaflet itself taken by phone. I apologise for its poor quality.

[Image: 2v16mfp.jpg]

{More to come}

~Be the Virtuous Man or Woman you are meant to be.~
2015 Feb 20 20:12
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Aemma
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RE: Andean Art in the Spanish Empire
My next installment:

Quote:In their efforts to support approved forms of devotion, familiares like Ramos would have acted in concert with clerics attached to specific parish communities. Over a century after Ramos's commission, the curate Juan Domingo Zamacola y Jauregui directed the renovation of his parish church, San Miguel of Cayma, and the surrounding town of Cayma, located just north of the urban centre of Arequipa, in southern present-day Peru. Zamacola supervised architects to design twin towers and a dome for San Miguel. He hired painters and sculptors to enhance the decorations within the church's interior. It is likely that he also commissioned a painting to honour his mentor, Monsignor Manuel Abad e Illana, whose novena to our Lady of Cayma was printed by Zamacola and remains in use to this day. Abad e Illana appears at the lower left of the painting, kneeling in homage to Our Lady of Cayma, who is herself shown in front of the church that Zamacola worked so hard to restore and preserve.

This image is taken from the internet:
[Image: 10mleuf.jpg]


This image is a photo from the leaflet itself:
[Image: 2zpqbmx.jpg]


This image is a close-up shot of that which I took of the painting itself at the museum:
[Image: x0qvbc.jpg]

As with most paintings, the details are magnificent. But the details of the dress (and other dresses in these other paintings) is truly spectacular.

{More to come}

~Be the Virtuous Man or Woman you are meant to be.~
2015 Feb 27 18:22
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