New United Kingdom genetic study
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Godyfa
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New United Kingdom genetic study
Very interesting. I've known about it for a few years already but the publication of results was postponed.

The study took DNA samples from Brits who's grandparents had all been born within the local area. Some takeaways from the research:

- Much of southern and eastern England is dominated by a cluster that shows about 1/2 admixture with German samples, which obviously represents Anglo-Saxons. The fact these samples aren't quite the same as north Germans suggests the invading Saxons mixed with the native Britons.
- But, not all of England is the same. My part of the country - western Yorkshire - forms a separate cluster to the English one. The people of the English border regions (Cumbria and the north-east) cluster with the people of the Scottish and Welsh border regions.
- Except for Orkney, there's little evidence of Viking descent anywhere in Britain.
- Not all Celts are the same. North and South Wales are more different than Scotland and England.
- As you'd expect, Scots and the Northern Irish are genetically similar.

[Image: 20150321_BRM969.png]

Quote:THE waves of invasion and immigration that have, from time to time, swept over the British Isles have led some to refer to Britons as a mongrel nation. A study just published in Nature by Peter Donnelly of Oxford University and his colleagues shows there is some truth in this, and that the palimpsest of those events is visible in people’s genes—or, at least, that it was still discernible in the late 19th century.

Dr Donnelly’s team looked in detail at the DNA of 2,039 Britons from all parts of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, each of whose grandparents had all been born within 80km of each other. They thus, in effect, sampled the distribution of genetic material in the country in 1885 (the average year of the birth of these grandparents), before the large-scale internal population movements of the 20th century had had a chance to confuse the issue. The results divided into 17 genetic clusters, illustrated on the map, which form a pattern that conforms quite well with what an historian might have predicted, but with some interesting wrinkles.

The map is dominated by a DNA cluster that might reasonably be described as “English”. Comparison with continental Europe shows, as might be expected, that this English cluster is related to northern Germany, where the Anglo-Saxons came from—though the admixture is less than 50%, which indicates (again, as expected) that there was much interbreeding between interlopers and natives.

Others kept themselves to themselves. Yorkshiremen and women will be gratified to note that the west of their county clusters separately from the rest of England, and Lancastrians similarly horrified that Yorkshire’s tendrils extend into much of theirs. Cornwall, too, clusters separately from England. Indeed, as all good Cornish would have suspected, it clusters separately even from Devon (which is itself also genetically different from England).

The whole so-called Celtic fringe, of areas in the west and north of Great Britain that were not invaded by the Saxons, is far more genetically diverse than its mythopoeic appellation suggests. Orkney, which has three clusters of its own, looks Norse. That is no surprise. It was, after all, part of Norway for 600 years. But north and south Wales are different from each other, and mainland Scotland has several clusters (two of which—a consequence, presumably, of the 17th-century plantations organised by King James VI and I—extend into Northern Ireland). The marcher lands between England and Scotland, and between England and Wales, harbour still further indigenous clusters.

The original Celts occupied a huge swathe of western Europe before the Roman conquest, so perhaps this diversity is not so surprising after all. Indeed, Dr Donnelly’s analysis found traces of genetic connections throughout the land with modern Belgium (which is named after a Celtic tribe, the Belgae) and various parts of France—or Gaul, as the Romans knew it. He did not, though, find any traces of the Vikings beyond those in Orkney, even though they held sway for some time over the eastern part of England. Maybe their fearsome reputation for uninvited sexual congress with local maidens was yet another myth.
The genetic history of Britain: Who do you think you are? | The Economist

Quote:The authors draw conclusions on several historical episodes of British history. The big one is the extent of Anglo-Saxon ancestry:

Quote:After the Saxon migrations, the language, place names, cereal crops and pottery styles all changed from that of the existing (Romano-British) population to those of the Saxon migrants. There has been ongoing historical and archaeological controversy about the extent to which the Saxons replaced the existing Romano-British populations. Earlier genetic analyses, based on limited samples and specific loci, gave conflicting results. With genome-wide data we can resolve this debate. Two separate analyses (ancestry profiles and GLOBETROTTER) show clear evidence in modern England of the Saxon migration, but each limits the proportion of Saxon ancestry, clearly excluding the possibility of long-term Saxon replacement. We estimate the proportion of Saxon ancestry in Cent./S England as very likely to be under 50%, and most likely in the range of 10–40%.

Two other details are the lack of Danish Viking ancestry in England:

Quote:In particular, we see no clear genetic evidence of the Danish Viking occupation and control of a large part of England, either in separate UK clusters in that region, or in estimated ancestry profiles, suggesting a relatively limited input of DNA from the Danish Vikings and subsequent mixing with nearby regions, and clear evidence for only a minority Norse contribution (about 25%) to the current Orkney population.

And, the absence of a unified pre-Saxon "Celtic" population. What seems to unify "Celts" is lower levels/absence of the Saxon influence, rather than belonging to a homogeneous "Celtic" population:

Quote:We saw no evidence of a general ‘Celtic’ population in non-Saxon parts of the UK. Instead there were many distinct genetic clusters in these regions, some amongst the most different in our study, in the sense of being most separated in the hierarchical clustering tree in Fig. 1. Further, the ancestry profile of Cornwall (perhaps expected to resemble other Celtic clusters) is quite different from that of the Welsh clusters, and much closer to that of Devon, and Cent./S England. However, the data do suggest that the Welsh clusters represent populations that are more similar to the early post-Ice-Age settlers of Britain than those from elsewhere in the UK.

Dienekes’ Anthropology Blog: British origins (Leslie et al. 2015)

I'm horrified ((:-P) to learn this: We Brits are more French than we are German. (:-|

Quote: white Britons today share 40 percent of their DNA with the French and 30 percent with modern Germans.
http://rt.com/uk/242157-uk-dna-genetic-study/
2015 Mar 23 12:41
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Mustapaita
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Suomi

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RE: New United Kingdom genetic study
May be the threads should be merged.

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2015 Mar 23 13:36
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Tintagell
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RE: New United Kingdom genetic study
It's kind of obvious certain parts of the Isles would develop unique regional genetic patterns.
2015 Mar 24 02:24
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Blackthorne
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RE: New United Kingdom genetic study
Guess it explains why I gots the teh blood of teh magyar in me. Hmm...

You goddamn communist heathen, you had best sound off that you love the Virgin Mary... or I'm gonna stomp your guts out!
2015 Mar 24 08:07
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