Aljubarrota : 14-VIII-1385
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Zephyr
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Aljubarrota : 14-VIII-1385
Battle of Aljubarrota

Background:

The modern Nation-State of Portugal starts in 868 when a military march of the Galician Kingdom is founded by Vímara Peres as Comitatus Portucalensis. In the 12th century, the nobles of the 2nd County of Portugal became discontent with a series events that they saw as a betrayal to the self-determination of these lands. The Portuguese achieve full independence on the 24th of June of 1128 and Afonso Henriques its regent (Dux Portucalensis), acclaimed king in 1139.

On the 23rd of May of 1179, Pope Alexander III officially recognized the legitimate full sovereignty of Portugal and Afonso Henriques as the first King of Portugal in the Manifestis Probatum Est.

Although, the King of Castille and León accepted the independence of Portugal in 1143, through the Treaty of Zamora, the conflicts were more or less constant until they reach a point of no return in the 14th Century.

Political context prior to the Battle of Aljubarrota

The death of D.Fernando I in 1383 and the Treaty of Salvaterra de Magos signed in April of that same year between the queen Leonor Teles, the Count João Andeiro and the King of Castille determined that the Crown of Portugal would belong to the descendants of the King of Castille, D. Juan I and the capital relocated to the Kingdom of Toledo. The Kingdom of Castille would therefore inevitably dominate Portugal. As a result, this situation left the majority of the Portuguese discontent.

Looking back at the political crisis from 1383 to 1385, it is possible to ascertain that its roots were in the dissatisfaction felt by the population, due to the deterioration of the living conditions of the majority of the population, but also when faced with the possibility that the independence of the Kingdom of Portugal could be at stake.

This desire for change grew when Leonor Teles and her allies wanted a political solution for Portugal, which not only was legally questionable, as well as clearly dissatisfying to the majority of the Portuguese population.

In light of these circumstances, the population of Lisbon proclaims D. João, Master of Avis, half brother of D. Fernando, as "ruler, governor and defender of the kingdom". The revolt of the Portuguese population is felt in several areas and cities of the Kingdom. In 1384, the King of Castille comes to Portugal, at the request of D. Leonor Teles. Between February and October the city of Lisbon is besieged, by land and sea, with the support of the Castillian fleet. This tactic does not work, not only due to the determination of the Portuguese forces, but also because Lisbon was properly walled and defended.

During a period in which combats with Castille had ceased, the Master's party took on a different battle, a political one. Therefore, in March and April of 1385 the Courts of Coimbra were summoned to proclaim The Master of Avis, King of Portugal.

Therefore, on the 8 July, 1385 D. João I, once again invades Portugal, through Almeida, with a large army of 40.000 men, moving then to Trancoso, Celorico da Beira, Coimbra, Soure and Leiria. In the meantime, The Castillian army besieges Lisbon through sea, in April of that year. The Portuguese army, commanded by General Nuno Álvares Pereira gets into position for combat. At that point the Battle was inevitable.

The unravelling of the battle

In the early morning of August 14, the army of D. João I took its ground position, chosen the previous day by Nuno Álvares Pereira. By the end of the morning the Castillian army approached from a Roman road.

The shock with the Portuguese was avoided, once that implied having to go up a hill in very unfavourable conditions. They preferred to instead avoid the strong defensive position of the Portuguese through sea, and set ground in the wide area of Chão da Feira. The Portuguese army constituted of approximately 7.000 dismounted cavalry, then moved two kilometres south and inverted its battle position to face the enemy front.

Around six o’clock the Castillian assault the Portuguese position. Once the battle had begun five main phases of the battle can be described:

1º- The impetuous front of the King of Castille (mostly constituted by French allied troops, assured by Froissart) most likely begins a mounted attack which is repelled by the solid defence works prepared in advance by the D. João I´s troops, which came as a total surprise for their arrogant enemies. For the battle to proceed, the French were forced to dismount their Calvary (those who were still able to do so) at the enemy front and therefore in an absolute critical position.

2º- Once D. Juan I is aware of the total disorder of his frontline, he decides to order the rest of his army, awaiting in Chão da Feira, majority of which were also mounted cavalry. When approaching the Portuguese line, he realizes – contrary to what he had expected - that the battle was being fought on foot (due to the characteristics of the defensive entrenchment system conceived by the Portuguese army). Therefore, the Castillian cavalry is dismounted early and march the rest of the way on foot(a few hundred meters) until they reach their enemies. At the same time they cut their long spears to facilitate their movement in the face-to-face battle that awaited them;

3º- In the meantime, D. Juan I´s arms men are struck by spheres and arrows from the English archers and the Portuguese “Flank of Sweethearts” respectively, which, together with the progressive narrowing of the battlefront (due to the ditches, pitches and caltrops) which hinder, disconcert and “deceive” (in the words of Fernão Lopes) the enemy and centre them in a disorganized fashion in the central part of the plateau; these were, by chance, the most decisive minutes of the day;

4º- as for the Castillian flanks, these remained mounted, which were destined - as was tradition at the time – to attack the Portuguese front which, due to the narrow characteristics of the plateau only allowed the right flank (led by the Master of Alcántara ) to do so, although at a tardy moment of the battle;

5º- the Castillian army panics, when, within the Portuguese square the flag of the Castillian monarch is brought down. The Castillians then start to flee in a disorganized manner. This was followed by a short yet devastating Portuguese pursuit, interrupted by night fall. D. Juan of Castille flees, mounted on a horse along with some hundreds of Castillian Calvary . He travels close to fifty kilometres throughout that evening, reaching Santarém, exhausted and desperate. Until the following morning, thousands of Castillians are killed by population in the surrounding areas of the Battlefield and neighbouring towns.

The remaining of the franc-Castillian army leaves Portugal, through Santarém and later Badajóz and the other part, through Beira, from where they had entered.

At the battlefield, the Portuguese sustained looses of approximately 1.000, while the Castillian army, approximately 4.000 and 5.000 prisoners. Outside the Battlefield, in the days following the battle, the Portuguese population killed 5.000 men of arms fleeing from the Castillian army. Due to the political consequence of the Battle and to the numerous noblemen and men of arms lost, Castille mourned for a period of two years.

Consequences of the Battle of Aljubarrota

For Europe, the Battle of Aljubarrota proved to be one of the most important battles of the medieval ages.

For Portugal, this battle, which occurred in the plateau of São Jorge on the 14th of Augusto, 1385, was one of the most decisive events of its History.

Had this battle never occurred, the small Portuguese kingdom would have probably been absorbed forever by its Castillian neighbour.

Regardless of its contribution, the pride we feel concerning a largely centennial history establishing the Portuguese state as one of the most ancient and homogenous political creations of the European period would not be present today.

The Portuguese victory in Aljubarrota also allowed for preparation of a period that would prove to be the most brilliant of national history – the period of the Discoveries – which would have simply not occurred any other way.

The Battle of Aljubarrota definitely afforded a consolidation of national identity that until then was merely in stages of formation, and allowed future Portuguese generations the possibility of asserting themselves as a free and independent nation.

[Image: m8Qubx3.jpg]

Jeff Hanneman 1964-2013
João Ribas 1965-2014
Lemmy Kilmister 1945-2015
2012 Aug 14 22:27
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RE: Aljubarrota : 14-VIII-1385
(2012 Aug 14 22:27)Zephyr Wrote:  The modern Nation-State of Portugal starts in 868 when a military march of the Galician Kingdom is founded by Vímara Peres as Comitatus Portucalensis.
Stomping over the ethnic distinctness of my Far-Western-Andalusian many-times-Great in-laws! Big Grin

By the way, is there much evidence over there for the Romance language spoken before you were all Galicianised? ;)

Quote:D. Juan I´s arms men are struck by spheres and arrows from the English archers

[Image: Archer01.gif][Image: Archer01.gif][Image: Archer01.gif] love

LoL at the first image to show up when I google for 'English archer' gif:
[Image: english-archer-by-artgerm-on-deviantart-...nimate.jpg]
- yet another case of my browsing history dictating my search results??! Eekcool

***

Well done on not becoming Spanish, anyway! thumbs up
2012 Aug 14 23:14
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RE: Aljubarrota : 14-VIII-1385
We surely could not have won without the English archers against 800 units of heavy French cavalry. They borrowed tanks, we hired anti-tank batteries. Manythanks, sir! Big Grin

Well, about the language and culture, Andalusia has its own character, similar at best with Algarve. Southern Portugal's most related culture is certainly the one from Spanish Extremadura. It has always been.

Western Andalusian towns like Zufre or Aracena are similar with Serpa or Mértola and that's normal. You could not mistake Sevilla for Évora. The disputed town of Olivença, which is de jure Portuguese and de facto Spanish, has clear signs of Portuguese architecture, for example.

In terms of languages? what did we speak here before the spread of Galaico-Português? one of the many dialects of Latinus (Latinus is called "Mozarabic" by islamophiles).

[Image: m8Qubx3.jpg]

Jeff Hanneman 1964-2013
João Ribas 1965-2014
Lemmy Kilmister 1945-2015
2012 Aug 15 03:37
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RE: Aljubarrota : 14-VIII-1385
(2012 Aug 15 03:37)Zephyr Wrote:  anti-tank batteries.
G'day
Quote:Well, about the language and culture, Andalusia has its own character, similar at best with Algarve. Southern Portugal's most related culture is certainly the one from Spanish Extremadura. It has always been.
I hope to travel more one day, and see all this for myself. Smile
Quote:The disputed town of Olivença, which is de jure Portuguese and de facto Spanish, has clear signs of Portuguese architecture, for example.
Oh my, I'd never heard of this place before - what a hilarious little anomaly! http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olivenza

I must admit from the map, it's a pretty ungainly chunk of territory!
[Image: Situa%C3%A7%C3%A3o_geogr%C3%A1fica_de_Ol​...773%29.jpg]

Reminds me of Devon's old North Petherwin parish, so outrageously annexed by the Cornish!
[Image: Area.gif]
PERKELE

Quote:In terms of languages? what did we speak here before the spread of Galaico-Português? one of the many dialects of Latinus (Latinus is called "Mozarabic" by islamophiles).
Aye, that's what I meant. I hate that word too. Using that word is an insult to the poor bastards who suffered here for so long, holding out against the temptation of conversion for an easier life. mad

I've often wondered if there was enough material to construct a provisional dialect map. To see if there was an ethnographic difference between late Baetica and southern Lusitania...
[Image: Crisis-of-the-Third-Century-in-Roman-Hispania.jpg]
There's probably not enough material though? I also wondered if the different types of Ladino of the expelled Jewry might be of use in this, but I suppose the expulsions were too late.

In this area there are a few placenames with F still, where you'd expect H in Castellano. Guajar Fondon and Castell de Ferro. Makes me curious.
2012 Aug 15 16:20
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RE: Aljubarrota : 14-VIII-1385
(2012 Aug 15 16:20)Osweo Wrote:  In this area there are a few placenames with F still, where you'd expect H in Castellano. Guajar Fondon and Castell de Ferro. Makes me curious.

Modern Castillian is less conservative than what many would expect. It lost a great deal of sounds.

Now that "Castell de Ferro" is pure Catalan! ???

Latin "castellum"
Portuguese "castelo" (last "o"s are always spelled "u")
Castillan "castillo"
Catalan "castell"

(2012 Aug 15 16:20)Osweo Wrote:  I've often wondered if there was enough material to construct a provisional dialect map. To see if there was an ethnographic difference between late Baetica and southern Lusitania...

There's probably not enough material though? I also wondered if the different types of Ladino of the expelled Jewry might be of use in this, but I suppose the expulsions were too late.

I wish I could give you a good explanation, but in fact the records are poor.

You can only have a guess of what happened looking at this already famous map:

[Image: Prehispanic_languages.gif]

But look at the amount of strange coincidences when compared to this unrelated map:

[Image: 800px-Taifas.png]
Remarkable, hm?



About this other question:

(2012 Aug 15 16:20)Osweo Wrote:  Using that word is an insult to the poor bastards who suffered here for so long, holding out against the temptation of conversion for an easier life.

...this paragraph is appropriate:

Quote:The main effect of the Arabic influence was lexical. Modern Portuguese still has a large number of words of Arabic origin (many were absorbed indirectly through Mozarabic) especially relating to food, agriculture and the crafts, which have no cognates in other Romance languages except in Spanish. But there are no Arabic loan words in the lexicon related to human feelings, all are of Latin origin.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_...e_language

[Image: m8Qubx3.jpg]

Jeff Hanneman 1964-2013
João Ribas 1965-2014
Lemmy Kilmister 1945-2015
2012 Aug 17 06:50
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RE: Aljubarrota : 14-VIII-1385
Vai voltar a haver missa para celebrar Aljubarrota e uma peça de roupa

Baptizada com o nome da peça de roupa que o Mestre de Avis vestiu em Aljubarrota e deixou em Guimarães, a Missa do Pelote vai celebrar-se novamente nesta terça-feira, 633.º aniversário da batalha, após ter sido interrompida. Sem condições para sair hoje do Museu Alberto Sampaio, o pelote chegou a ser usado como símbolo de independência, no período filipino.


.jpg  MuseuAlbertoSampaio-LaudelReiD_JoaoI.jpg (Size: 33,59 KB / Downloads: 6)

TIAGO MENDES DIAS
14 de Agosto de 2018, 9:13

Por mais de cinco séculos, o padrão gótico do Largo da Oliveira, habitualmente designado Padrão do Salado, reuniu os crentes para uma missa campal, que decorria anualmente, a 14 de Agosto. Junto a um dos arcos, repousava uma lança, encimada por uma peça acolchoada, de linho, de lã e de seda. Era o pelote que D. João I utilizou como protecção, por baixo da armadura, no decurso da Batalha de Aljubarrota, em 1385. Assegurada a independência portuguesa, com a vitória sobre um exército castelhano em superioridade numérica, o rei deslocou-se a Guimarães para cumprir uma promessa a Santa Maria. Na cidade, entregou à sua principal instituição católica, a Colegiada, vários bens, entre os quais o Tríptico da Natividade, altar portátil em prata dourada, a lança e o pelote (ou loudel), hoje exposto no Museu Alberto Sampaio. O artigo de vestuário tornou-se no símbolo maior da eucaristia comemorativa de Aljubarrota, que vai ser reavivada nesta terça-feira, às 19h00.

Após ter-se realizado pela última vez junto ao padrão, no final da década de 70 do século XX, segundo estimativa do prior da Colegiada da Nossa Senhora da Oliveira, José Maria Lima de Carvalho, a cerimónia vai regressar graças à iniciativa da Colegiada, mas também da Câmara Municipal de Guimarães e da Confraria Alma do Povo, Cultura e Turismo, associação criada em 2014 para “promover manifestações religiosas com expressão cultural”, indicou ao PÚBLICO o seu presidente, Florentino Cardoso. Apesar de, aos 62 anos, “não ter memória de qualquer missa” no seu tempo de vida, e da imagem mais recente da celebração que encontrou datar dos anos 30 ou 40, o dirigente associativo referiu-se à Missa do Pelote como “uma das tradições vimaranenses mais genuínas”, que merecia ser revitalizada.

A cerimónia, porém, vai decorrer na Igreja de Nossa Senhora da Oliveira, sem a presença da veste de D. João I, desviando-se do ritual tradicional. Florentino Cardoso explicou que a iniciativa de reavivar a missa “surgiu em cima da hora”, razão pela qual a Câmara não pôde garantir a celebração junto ao padrão, e que o pelote, dado o seu estado sensível, “não está em condições de ser transportado”. Convencido, no entanto, que o regresso da missa já neste ano pode sensibilizar a população para um “património imaterial de Guimarães que não é conhecido”, o dirigente revelou ainda que lhe foi prometida a retoma da tradição em 2019, com uma procissão pelo centro histórico a anteceder a missa e uma eventual representação do pelote, junto ao padrão.

A associação Alma do Povo, revelou ainda o presidente, pretende também implementar, a 14 de Agosto, um cortejo histórico com um trajecto semelhante ao que D. João I percorreu em Guimarães, para agradecer a vitória de Aljubarrota. “Esse cortejo iria contar momentos da história de Portugal, com destaque para aqueles em que a independência esteve em jogo”, explicou.

A vereadora municipal com a pasta da cultura, Adelina Paula Pinto, assumiu ao PÚBLICO realçou que a Missa do Pelote solidifica a ligação da cidade a D. João I e a “uma nova fundação” do país, garantida em Aljubarrota, e assumiu que a autarquia vai tentar realizar um levantamento das tradições de Guimarães associadas à cerimónia, bem como dos sermões aí proferidos.

O sermão, aliás, distinguia a cerimónia das demais eucaristias católicas. “A eucaristia decorria como outra qualquer, mas tinha sempre um orador convidado para proferir um sermão patriótico e não apostólico”, adiantou Florentino Cardoso. De todos os sermões proferidos em centenas de missas, o mais conhecido é o de 1638, por Luís da Natividade, frade e guardião do Convento de São Francisco, em Guimarães. Depois de ter acompanhado D. João I, em 1385, o pelote foi então o protagonista de uma outra luta pela independência portuguesa, uma luta simbólica. “A celebração continuou a decorrer sob o domínio castelhano. O sermão de 1638 falava da independência de Portugal, algo que viria a ser restaurado dois anos mais tarde”, afirmou o historiador António Amaro das Neves.

Apesar do PÚBLICO não ter encontrado nenhuma versão integral do sermão, alguns excertos encontram-se no blogue de Amaro das Neves sobre Guimarães, Memórias de Araduca, e espelham uma crença numa mudança de rumo, apesar do aspecto do loudel servir de metáfora para o Portugal de então. “Vejo-vos, pelote, velho e roto: vejo-vos atravessado com a vossa própria lança (…). Só me resta para consolação ver-vos diante desta Virgem da Oliveira, que se uma vez vos livrou da morte, vos pode ainda ressuscitar a nova vida”, lê-se.

https://www.publico.pt/2018/08/14/local/...-i-1840948


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[Image: m8Qubx3.jpg]

Jeff Hanneman 1964-2013
João Ribas 1965-2014
Lemmy Kilmister 1945-2015
2018 Aug 14 17:26
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